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Research Methodology and Background

Study Design and Methodological Issues

Concealing treatment allocation in randomised trials

Interaction revisited: the difference between two estimates

Treatment allocation by minimisation

Meta-analysis: Neither quick nor easy

Validating scales and indexes

Review article: Medical education research: an overview of methods

A guide for the design and conduct of self-administered surveys of clinicians

SPIRIT 2013 Statement: Defining Standard Protocol Items for Clinical Trials

Tutorial in Biostatistics: Using the General Linear Mixed Model to Analyse Unbalanced Repeated Measures and Longitudinal Data

Systematic reviews: the case for rigorous methods and rigorous reporting

Undertaking a literature review: a step-by-step approach

Blinding in clinical trials and other studies

A Primer in Longitudinal Data Analysis

Meta-analysis in medical research

Statistical Analysis of Correlated Data using Generalized Estimating Equations: An Orientation

Tutorials in Clinical Research: Part IV: Recognizing and Controlling Bias

Randomized Controlled Trials - Part 17 of a Series on Evaluation of Scientific Publications

Good practice in the conduct and reporting of survey research

How to design a randomized controlled trial

Tutorials in Clinical Research: Part III: Selecting a Research Approach to Best Answer a Clinical Question

A practical guide to understanding systematic reviews and meta-analysis

Essential elements of questionnaire design and development

Systematic Literature Reviews and Meta-Analyses

Study Design in Medical Research

Types of Study in Medical Research

Observational study design II

Questionnaire surveys

Meta-analyses: sources of bias

Allocation concealment

Cluster randomized controlled trials

Crossover trials

External and internal validity in clinical trials

Observational study design

Observational study designs

Open clinical trials

Randomised controlled trials with full factorial designs

The Hawthorne effect

The placebo effect

Why match in case-control studies?

Why randomise in clinical trials?

Zelen's design

Allocation concealment versus blinding in randomised controlled trials

Confounding in clinical trials

Controlled trials

Equivalence trials

Prospective cohort studies: advantages and disadvantages

Selection bias versus allocation bias

Sham treatments

Stratified random allocation

The purpose of control groups

What is a superiority trial?

Case-control studies: advantages and disadvantages

Clinical significance versus statistical significance

Cross sectional studies: advantages and disadvantages

Nested case-control studies: advantages and disadvantages

Placebo controlled trials

Randomized controlled trials: internal versus external validity

Treatment allocation in trials: block randomisation

What is a crossover trial?

Emerging Trends in Clinical Trial Design

A Practical Guide to Surveys and Questionnaires

How to conduct a randomized trial

Observational Studies and Predictive Models


Missing outcomes in randomized trials

Quality, not just quantity: the role of qualitative methods in anesthesia research

Statistical Notes

Statistics and ethics in medical research VIII: Improving the quality of statistics in medical journals

Statistical guidelines for contributors to medical journals

Diagnostic tests 1: sensitivity and specificity

Diagnostic tests 3: receiver operating characteristic plots

Quartiles, quintiles, centiles, and other quantities

Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence

Comparing several groups using analysis of variance

Presentation of numerical data

Statistical reviewing for medical journals

Time to event (survival) data

 Standard deviations and standard errors

The cost of dichotomising continuous variables

Missing Data

How to obtain the confidence interval from a P value

Regression towards the mean

Multiple significance tests: the Bonferroni method

Transformations, means and confidence intervals

Bayesians and frequentists

Comparisons within randomised groups can be very misleading

Measurement Method Comparison

Statistics for the reader: what to as before believing the results

Using the General Linear Mixed Model to Analyse Unbalanced Repeated Measures and Longitudinal Data

What is meta-analysis?

Diagnostic tests 4: likelihood ratios

Checklist for Statistical Topics in Anesthesia and Analgesia Reviews

Confidence Interval or P-Value

Choosing Statistical Tests

Statistical and clinical significance, and how to use confidence intervals to help interpret both

Sample size for beginners

Basic statistics for clinicians: 1. Hypothesis testing

Basic statistics for clinicians: 2. Interpreting study results: confidence intervals

Basic statistics for clinicians: 4. Correlation and regression

Statistics in Anesthesia: Part One - Anesthesia Tutorial of the Week 302

Statistical Pearls III. The Most Likely Interpretation

Tutorial in Biostatistics Handling drop-out in longitudinal studies

Estimating the mean and variance from the median range and the size of a sample

Basic statistics for clinicians: 3. Assessing the effects of treatment: measures of association

Clinical tests: sensitivity and specificity

Statistics V: Introduction to clinical trials and systematic reviews

Study design in clinical research: sample size estimation and power analysis

Equivalence and Noninferiority Testing in Anesthesia Research

Interaction 3: How to examine heterogeneity

Statistics I: data and correlations

Statistics II: Central tendency and spread of data

Statistics III: Probability and statistical tests

Statistics Part IV: Interpreting the results of statistical tests

Tutorials in Clinical Research: Part VII. Understanding Comparative Statistics (Contrast) - Part A: General Concepts of Statistical Significance

Practical guides to understanding sample size and minimal clinically important difference (MCID)

A practical guide to understanding systematic reviews and meta-analyses

Understanding Multivariable Analyses: Part A

Sample size calculations: basic principles and common pitfalls

Sample size calculations: should the emperor's clothes be off the peg or made to measure?

Tutorial in Biostatistics Meta-Analysis: Formulating, Evaluating, Combining, and Reporting

Practical Guide to Choosing an Appropriate Data Display

Essential Elements of questionnaire design and development

Data Analysis of Epidemiological Studies

Sample Size Calculation in Clinical Trials

Interpreting Results in 2 × 2 Tables

Linear Regression Analysis

Number needed to harm

Absolute and relative risks

Cohen’s coefficient k

Confidence intervals and statistical significance: rules of thumb

Confidence intervals and statistical significance

Effect sizes

Hazards and hazard ratios

How to read a forest plot

Incidence rates

Meta-analyses: tests of heterogeneity

Non-parametric statistical tests for independent groups: numerical data

One way analysis of variance

Parametric statistical tests for independent groups: numerical data

Parametric v non-parametric statistical tests

Pearson's correlation coefficient

Statistical tests for independent groups: categorical data

Statistical tests for independent groups: time to event data

The normal distribution

What are odds?

What is a P value?

Analysing case-control studies: adjusting for confounding

Convenience sampling

Generalisation and extrapolation of study results

Kaplan-Meier survival curves: interpretation and communication of risk

Logistic regression

Meta-analyses: heterogeneity and subgroup analysis

Meta-analyses: how to read a funnel plot

Meta-analyses: standardised mean differences

Multiple regression

Odds and odds ratios

P values or confidence intervals?

Receiver operating characteristic curves

Sample size: how many participants are needed in a trial?

Simple linear regression

The importance of statistical power

Variables, sample estimates, and population parameters

What is intention to treat analysis?

What is number needed to treat (NNT)?

What is the standard error of the mean?

Clinical trials: units of randomisation

Non-parametric statistical tests for two independent groups: numerical data

Parametric statistical tests for two related groups: numerical data

Relative risks versus odds ratios

Sample size calculations in randomised trials: mandatory and mystical

Descriptive Statistics

Statistics at square one III-Standard deviation

VII - Statements of probability

VIII - Differences between means

XI - The t tests

XIII - The t tests (concluded)

XIV - The chi tests

XVII - Some non-parametric tests

Analysing controlled trials with baseline and follow up measurements

Judging a Plethora of p-Values

A practical guide for understanding confidence intervals and P values

Statistics: A Brief Overview

How to Calculate Sample Size in Randomized Controlled Trials

Survival Analysis

Writing Tips and Reporting Guidelines

Bridging Clinical Investigators and Statisticians: Writing the Statistical Methodology for a Research Proposal

How to write a good abstract for a scientific paper or conference presentation

How to write a scientific paper - writing the methods section

Reporting Guidelines for Survey Research: An Analysis of Published Guidance and Reporting Practices

Writing for publication - a guide for new authors

The case for structuring the discussion of scientific papers

How to write a case report for publication

Invited Commentary - How to Write a Scientific Article

How to Write Your First Research Paper

How to Write the Methods Section of a Research Paper

Improving Bioscience Research Reporting: The ARRIVE Guidelines for Reporting Animal Research

Optimizing Scholarly Communication: 30 Tips for Writing Clearly

The CONSORT Statement: Revised Recommendations for Improving the Quality of Reports of Parallel-Group Randomized Trials

Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: The PRISMA Statement

Writing the results

Preparing effective illustrations. Part 1: graphs

Preparing effective illustrations. Part 2: photographs, images and diagrams

Writing the discussion

Writing a systematic review

Review article: Reporting Guidelines in the biomedical literature

Basic structure and types of scientific papers

Title and title page

Preparing a manuscript for submission

Writing a case report

A guide to writing case reports for the Journal of Medical Case Reports and BioMed Central Research Notes

It’s Still Plagiarism

Bias in clinical trials

Randomised controlled trials: evaluating and communicating treatment effects

The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies

Useful Links



Research Reporting Guidelines

CONSORT (CONsolidated Standards of Reporting Trials)

Equator Network

ICMJE Recommendations

PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses)

The SPIRIT Statement

STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology)

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